Fishery Improvement Project
Last update: November 2016
Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) [Northern-Central stock]
FIP Stage according to CASS progress table: 2, Stakeholders have agreed to start the FIP and are evaluating the priorities and options for action.
Lovering Foods (UK importer)
Compañía Americana de Conservas (local exporter)
CeDePesca (technical support)
FishSource – Anchoveta – Peruvian northern-central stock
(focused on the fishery for indirect human consumption)
Date Publicly Announced:
Current Improvement Recommendations:
- To increase current knowledge on the impacts of the Chimbote small-scale fleet over other ecosystem components, such as bycatch species and endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species.
- To define and enforce catch limits for the small-scale and artisanal fleets and strengthen landing, processing and transportation controls.
- To strengthen control of the fishery’s value chain to minimize the deviation of anchovy caught for human direct consumption towards the indirect human consumption sector.
The Northern-Central stock of Peruvian anchovy supports the single most important mono-specific fishery in the world, accounting for 5 to 6 million metric tons of landings annually. Throughout its history, this fishing stock has undergone some extreme collapses and amazing recoveries. Peruvian anchovy is one of the key species within the Southeastern Pacific ecosystem as it is consumed by many other animal species, and it is extremely sensitive to variable environmental conditions under the influence of the Humboldt current, the Cromwell current, and periodic strong El Niño and La Niña events.
The fishing fleets targeting the Northern-Central stock of anchovy are divided in three, according to their fishing capacity: There is an artisanal fishing fleet of vessels of less than 10 m3 GRT; a small-scale fishing fleet of vessels of more than 10 m3 GRT and less than 32.6m3 GRT; and an industrial fishing fleet of vessels larger than 32.6 m3. Landings from the artisanal and small-scale fleets should be used for direct human consumption, and only industrial landings are to be used to produce fishmeal. As of 2012, with the issuance of Supreme Decree N° 005-2012-PRODUCE, the artisanal fleet fishes within 5 nautical miles from the coast, the small-scale fleet fish between 5 and 10 nm from the coast, while the industrial fleet fishes outside this 10 nm-zone.
The Chimbote fleet, from which Compañía Americana de Conservas sources from, is grouped in the small-scale and artisanal fleet category.
In 2008 and with support from the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership, CeDePesca started implementation of a Fishery Improvement Project for the Peruvian anchovy fishery. That FIP promoted several improvements to the fishery that were subsequently fruitful; in particular:
- In 2010, a limitation of effort was established for the small-scale fleet in Peru. However, fishing capacity was still above the levels demanded by the direct human consumption sector and CeDePesca encouraged a continued improvement of the management measure.
- In 2011, the harvest strategy was first published by IMARPE in a scientific paper. Although it was still not formalized through an official document, it was a great advance for fishery research transparency at the time.
- Also in 2011, CeDePesca started disseminating the methodology for the Ecological Risk Assessment for the Effects of Fishing (ERAEF) in Peru. The first workshop was conducted at IMARPE’s regional office in Huanchaco, La Libertad. The second was organized in 2012 by UNOPS’ GEF Project for the Humboldt Current Large Marine Ecosystem and was executed by CeDePesca’s staff.
- In 2012, CeDePesca sent and released a public statement addressed at PRODUCE, regarding measures established in Supreme Decree 005-2012-PRODUCE. This Decree established three fleet categories and distinct fishing zones for each; it also established that small scale fishing vessels (more than 10m3 GRT and less than 32.6m3 GRT) shall become subjected to the vessel monitoring system. However, loopholes remained in the legislation, as it stated that anchovy caught by the small-scale vessels should be used “preferably” for human direct consumption, but did not define the term “preferably”. CeDePesca’s statement asked for greater accuracy in the regulation in order to avoid oversizing of the small-scale fleet and a misdirection of small-scale fleet landings towards fishmeal. Shortly afterwards, PRODUCE issued Ministerial Resolution 433-2012-PRODUCE closing those loopholes by stating that anchovy caught in the small-scale vessels’ fishing zone should be used for direct human consumption only, and establishing that no new permits would be issued for this fleet category.
- CeDePesca sent and released a second public statement addressed at PRODUCE analyzing official information on anchovy catches, production and commercialization of fishmeal over a 5-year period and the potential extraction capacity of the small-scale fleet to show the need to take measures to curb undeclared fishing. CeDePesca recommended discouraging discards in fishing operations, improving the onboard observers program, accelerating the closure of marine areas with high presence of juvenile specimens and setting an ITQ system for the artisanal and small-scale fleet. Shortly afterwards, PRODUCE established Supreme Decree 008-2012-PRODUCE introducing improvements to the previous regime, some of which were recommendations made by CeDePesca in its statement.
- Also in 2012, as a result of the FIP’s long transparency campaign, IMARPE clearly reported for the first time the limit and target reference points that it had been using for years but that were not consigned in any official document. The limit and target reference points being a parental biomass of 4 million metric tons and 6 million metric tons (under normal environmental conditions).
In November 2011, officials from the now closed UNOPS’ GEF Project for the Humboldt Large Marine Ecosystem put CeDePesca in contact with the General Manager from Compañía Americana de Conservas. This company is part of the Spanish company Grupo Consorcio and it showed great interest in getting the fishery certified under the MSC program so that their canned products may use the MSC logo. The company’s chain of custody has already been certified to work with MSC-certified Argentine anchoita (a species similar to anchovy that belongs also to the Engraulis genus).
In July 2012, Compañía Americana de Conservas signed a Framework Collaboration Agreement with CeDePesca for the implementation of a FIP targeting the portion of the fishery fishing for direct human consumption, and Specific Agreement N°1. In accordance to these agreements, CeDePesca helped to fill out forms to ask for bids to three Conformity Assessment Bodies and provided advice during the MSC Pre-Assessment process conducted by Bureau Veritas.
In December 2012, the MSC Pre-Assessment report was turned in by Bureau Veritas and an Action Plan was devised by CeDePesca. However, because of changes in the country’s political climate, Compañía Americana de Conservas decided to delay the start of the FIP until conditions improved. As a result, this FIP was not publicly announced and it was suspended until new notice.
In June 2016, CeDePesca was contacted by Lovering Foods, a UK company that sources from Compañía Americana de Conservas. Lovering Foods expressed their interest in setting up a FIP together with Compañía Americana de Conservas to attain MSC certification with technical coordination provided by CeDePesca. Given that new authorities have been summoned in Peru as the result of the change in government, the FIP is now resuming activities.
At the time of drafting this report, the main issues regarding sustainability of the small-scale fishery seem to be:
- There is little knowledge on the impacts of the Chimbote small-scale fleet over other ecosystem components, such as bycatch species and endangered, threatened and protected (ETP) species.
- Catch limits for the small-scale fleet need to be reinforced and landing and transportation controls need to be strengthened.
- Transparency of science should continue to increase, so that information on the stock status in relation to its ecosystem reference points are readily available to the public.
A more detailed panorama will emerge after the update of the MSC Pre-Assessment (see Progress Update section).
At the time of drafting this report, FIP objectives are considered to be:
- To design and implement a private onboard observers program to close information gaps regarding the Chimbote small-scale fleet interaction with other ecosystem components.
- To conduct an Ecological Risk Assessment for the Effects of Fishing to detect risks faced by species impacted by the fishery and devise management proposals, if needed.
- To promote the integration of the information obtained by the various on board observers programs under direction of the Peruvian Fisheries Research Institute (IMARPE).
- To promote stronger enforcement of management measures and of surveillance and control mechanisms by regional authorities.
- To promote further collaboration and coordination among stakeholders in the governmental, private and non-governmental sectors.
These objectives will be revised by FIP partners after the update of the MSC Pre-Assessment is concluded (see Progress Update section below).
In June, stakeholders have decided to form and publicly announce the FIP, and have agreed that CeDePesca should conduct an update of the MSC Pre-Assessment performed by Bureau Veritas in December 2012. This update is not only necessary given changes in management measures and its enforcement during the last three and a half years, but because Compañía Americana de Conservas is no longer sourcing from Pisco, but from Chimbote.
FIP partners have also agreed to conduct an internal workshop to discuss results and to agree an Action Plan that would become part of a Specific Agreement to be signed by all. The meeting will be held in early September.
July – September 2016
During this quarter, CeDePesca updated the MSC Pre-Assessment that had been conducted in 2012 by Bureau Veritas, and a meeting to present results and a visit to Chimbote were organized.
From September 5th to 9th, Lovering Foods’ representatives Ms. Caitlin Schindler and Mr. Andrés Reyes-Alzate visited the fishery. The first meeting took place on Monday 5th at the National Society of Fisheries (SNP), that kindly provided a venue. Among stakeholders present at the meeting were representatives from the Peruvian Engineer’s College, the National Society of Industries (SNI), NGO Oannes, and industry representatives from TASA, SNP, and FIP partners Compañía Americana de Conservas and Lovering Foods. At this meeting, CeDePesca presented the update of those performance indicators that were to be reviewed in the MSC pre-assessment that was conducted in 2010 by Bureau Veritas. All new scores were explained and feedback was received from the participants. On September 7th, FIP partners met with IMARPE’s new Scientific Executive Director, Mr. Renato Guevara. Mr. Guevara talked about the next issue of a book on anchovy that will be edited by IMARPE, and expressed the new administration’s intention of increasing transparency of scientific information. In addition, a meeting was held with the Vice-Minister for Fisheries, Mr. Héctor Soldi, and with the head of the Office for Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Mr. Iván González. The Vice-Minister expressed his support for the project, and let partners know that his administration will look to further formalize the sector and improve management of the small-scale and artisanal fisheries. He also explained that new roundtables would be implemented to discuss the management of the fishery, and that these will include representatives from the small-scale and artisanal fishing sector. On Friday 9th, a meeting was held between CeDePesca and the Executive Director of the General Office of Coastguards (DICAPI), Mr. José Jara and his advisor, Mr. Fuentes Castro. At this meeting, CeDePesca expressed the need for further enforcement of management measures to prevent illegal fishing by boats with no permits. Mr. Jara explained that coordination needs to be improved between jurisdictions and other governmental offices, and informed that new patrol boats have been acquired recently to strengthen control operations.
Lovering Foods, Compañía Americana de Conservas and CeDePesca have agreed on the Action Plan for this FIP and its associated budget. A formal Framework Collaboration Agreement and Specific Agreement N°1 are now in the process of signature.