Fishery Improvement Project
Last update: January 2019
Species: Argentine red shrimp, Patagonian shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri)
FIP Stage according to CASS progress table: 4, FIP is delivering improvement in policies or practices
FIP Rating according to SFP rating system: A (Exceptional Progress, January 2019)
FIP Rating according to MSC benchmarking tool: Initial (Jul 2016): 0.54; Second (Jul 2017): 0.61; Third (Jul 2018): 0.63
FIP Profile at FisheryProgress.org: Argentina offshore red shrimp – bottom-trawl (Dec 2018)
San Jorge Gulf (provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz), Chubut provincial waters up to Rawson, and national waters between 42° and 47°S.
FIP Coordination: If you would like more information about the FIP or if you wish to support it, please contact Alejandra Cornejo.
- Pesquera Veraz
- Maritime Products International
- Cabo Vírgenes
- Frigorífico del Sud-Este
- Pesquera Santa Cruz
- Pesquera San Isidro
- Congeladores Patagónicos
- Pesquera Deseado
- Direct Source
- Estrella Patagónica
- Food Partners Patagonia
- PanaPesca USA
- Red Chamber Argentina
- CeDePesca (technical support)
Sustainability information: Argentine red shrimp – FishSource
Other references: Sealifebase – Pleoticus muelleri
Date Publicly Announced: October 2014
Current Improvement Recommendations:
- Integrate available databases at the federal and provincial levels
- Increase data transparency
- Integrate the information obtained by different onboard observers programs
- Incorporate the ecosystem approach to fisheries management
- Improve compliance with the rules on using devices with grids to release fish bycatch species
The Argentine red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri) is one of the main resources in the Argentine Sea. Its bottom trawl fishery is characterized by a large fluctuation in the annual level of declared landings. Between two successive years, differences of as much as 35 thousand tonnes have been recorded (Bertuche et al., 2000, 2005). These fluctuations are mainly due to environmental factors affecting the early stages of the red shrimp life cycle, and to the fishing effort applied to concentrations during the recruiting process.
The National Institute of Fisheries Research and Development (INIDEP) began the research dedicated to this resource in the 1980s. An initial model was proposed to explain the dynamics of red shrimp in Southern waters, according to which the reproduction process would take place mainly at the north of the San Jorge Gulf, and recruitment at the south of the Gulf, with two dispersive phenomena towards the south and northeast. Subsequent studies showed that the reproduction process takes place throughout the entire Patagonian coast, focusing on three areas: at the south of Rawson, at the north of the San Jorge Gulf and at the south of the San Jorge Gulf. In these locations, the reproduction process would have different start dates and would have different durations and intensities (De Carli et al, 2012). This would seem to suggest the existence of different sub-stocks of Argentine red shrimp; however, the evidence is insufficient to differentiate them. Currently, the fishery is managed as if it acts upon a single stock.
The difficulty in identifying functional units resulted in specific management tools that seek to eliminate or mitigate the factors that could negatively affect the abundance of red shrimp, and were set in response to an oversizing of fishing effort that led to overfishing in the mid-90s. Currently, there is a system of mobile closures, which are added to other restrictions such as minimum mesh size at the back of the net, escape devices for juvenile hake, limited time per fishing haul, towing speed, height at the mouth of the net, night fishing ban, limits for the allowable amount of broken specimens and of specimens of sizes less than 70 units per kilo (up to 20% of total processed weight). The response to these management measures has been positive, although the reticence to make use of escape devices for juvenile hake persists, causing a negative interaction between this fishery and the Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi) fishery located south of 41°S, which is currently in recovery after an extended period of depletion. This interaction is much more pronounced for the freezing fleet, and less pronounced for the coastal fleet based in the port of Rawson.
Moreover, the fishery also interacts with other species, as occurs in many other similar fisheries. Among the bycatch species are the following elasmobranchs: picked dogfish (Squalus acanthias), short spine spur dog (Squalus mitsukurii), narrow mouthed cat shark (Schroederichthys bivius), tope shark (Galeorhinus galeus), narrow nose smooth hound (Mustelus schmitii) and rays from the Squatina family (Cedrola et al., 2012). Additionally, the interaction of the fishery and the habitat needs to be better characterized. There have been efforts to study the interaction with benthic communities but these have not had the necessary continuity.
Annually, the Argentine red shrimp fishery begins its activity at the south of the San Jorge Gulf between the months of March and April. By June and July, fishing operations are enabled in national waters outside the San Jorge Gulf, and from the start of the southern hemisphere Spring, catches are centered at the north of the Gulf and off the coast of the province of Chubut (De Carli et al., 2012).
In 2016, Argentine red shrimp catches amounted to 172,827 tonnes, 21% more than in 2015. As regards exports, they increased 13% in volume and 1% in value. The quantities exported have the highest value of the last 8 years, reaching 120,853 tons. (Minagri, 2016).
At the start of the FIP, the fishery is undergoing a period of stability. The main issues regarding its sustainability are:
- The bycatch of hake (Merluccius hubbsi). While in recent years the estimated catches of hake have been declining, they are still significant: discards are in the order of 11 thousand tonnes. The Southern stock of Argentine hake is currently in an initial process of recovery after a long period of depletion.
- Escape devices lawfully admitted (Disela II and Hargril) are generally not used by the fishing fleet.
- The research campaigns conducted by INIDEP are not specifically aimed at the species and do not have the regularity needed to make year comparisons.
- The onboard observer programs of the provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz and the onboard observer program for national waters do not work in a coordinated fashion and scientific data is not unified.
- To encourage an increase in the transparency of the scientific data.
- To promote the integration of the information obtained by the various on board observers programs.
- To encourage the incorporation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management.
- To encourage an improvement in the enforcement of the rules related to the use of grids for fish escape.
- To promote inter-jurisdictional management and research for this fishery.
- To achieve an MSC certifiable status.
In October, stakeholders have decided to form a FIP that has been publicly announced and have agreed to conduct a gap analysis against the MSC standard to obtain a more detailed diagnosis regarding the obstacles to sustainability, in order to define a detailed action plan for 2015.
The FIP partners have decided to publish the MSC pre-assessment conducted by Bureau Veritas and have agreed to start implementing improvement actions as of 2016. An Action Plan has been drafted and is currently in discussion and expected to be adopted in January 2016.
On March 8th, at the Boston’s Seafood Expo North America, CeDePesca and the FIP partners -including new adherents- announced the implementation of the FIP to start in 2016. The FIP has gathered strong interest from local and international stakeholders and the list of FIP partners is expected to continue to grow before the signing of the final FIP Agreement.
April – June 2016
On April 4th, FIP partners met in the city of Buenos Aires to sign the FIP Agreement, complete with its Action Plan for the next three years. Twenty companies are currently signatories of the FIP Agreement.
On April 27th, a press conference was held during the Brussels Seafood Expo Global, where CeDePesca updated stakeholders, buyers and other interested parties on the advances of the Patagonian shrimp FIPs. Argentina’s Undersecretary of Fisheries, Mr. Tomás Gerpe, attended this conference and took the opportunity to pledge the government’s support for improvement efforts.
In May and June, new FIP partners Davigel and Greciamar were welcomed to the FIP.
July – September 2016
During FAO’s 32nd Session of the Committee on Fisheries (COFI) held in Rome between July 11th and 15th, the Undersecretary of Fisheries at the federal level once again reiterated his support for the FIP.
Also in July, new FIP partners Food Partners Patagonia and Vepez were welcomed to the FIP.
In August, the Fisheries Federal Council convened the Commission for the Follow-up of the Argentine red shrimp fishery. The meeting was held at the FFC’s headquarters in Buenos Aires on August 26th.
At the meeting, the Province of Chubut required federal authorities to design a long-term Management Plan for Red Shrimp and the design and implementation of an inter-jurisdictional management plan, and an inter-jurisdictional commission. These requests are in line with this FIP’s objectives.
Also, on August 29th, the FIP’s Onboard Observers Program was launched. The first observer boarded Pesquera Veraz’ fishing vessel Valiente II on this date.
On the other hand, also in late August and after more than a year of successful partnership, the Patagonian National University of San Juan Bosco (UNPSJB, for its name in Spanish) and CeDePesca signed a Framework Collaboration Agreement formalizing the alliance and committing to continue working together for at least three more years. CeDePesca and the UNPSBJ have continued to coordinate the Onboard Observers with the aim of gathering data related to the impacts of this fishery on the ecosystem.
In September, the Argentine Undersecretary of Fisheries, Mr. Tomás Gerpe, once again publicly expressed the federal government’s intention of adopting a comprehensive management plan for Argentine red shrimp.
Also in September, the Argentine Undersecretariat of Fisheries issued Disposition N° 78-E/2016 mandating that Argentine red shrimp is included under the catch-certificate program as of November 1st, 2016. The program was set up in December 2014 and has been regularly expanded to include more species.
On the other hand, considering the high abundance of red shrimp in national waters, the Fisheries Federal Council decided to suspend catch limits per vessel temporarily and until the fishery closes in late October/early November.
October – December 2016
In October, FIP partners welcomed Cabomar as new partner to the FIP. An Addendum to the Framework Collaboration Agreement was presented to the Spain-based company in late August and was signed by its representatives in early October. Currently, there are 24 industry partners to this FIP.
The 2016 fishing season (that started on November 30th, 2015) closed on October 28th, with landings of approximately 160 thousand metric tons, a new record for the fishery. Landings showed an 18% increase in relation to the 2015 fishing season, according to preliminary data from the Undersecretariat of Fisheries.
During this quarter, no new fishing trips could be observed because the observers became unavailable for the task. CeDePesca resumed the process of recruitment of observers for the FIP’s Onboard Observers Program that is expected to be fully implemented in the 2017 fishing season. In December, the due permits process has been initiated and it will continue during the following months.
Also in December, CeDePesca finished a compilation of technical reports issued by INIDEP (National Institute for Fisheries Research and Development) in the last twelve years. These reports are being processed to extract any data that would be useful to assess the evolution of the stock’s abundance in recent years.
January – March 2017
In January, the analysis of the data compiled from INIDEP technical reports was completed. A report on preliminary indicators of the evolution of the Argentine red shrimp stock is now being drafted by CeDePesca.
In early February, CeDePesca, on behalf of FIP partners, sent a letter to the National Undersecretary of Fisheries to request a historical assessment of the stock’s abundance to determine if its exploitation rate is in line with its maximum sustainable yield or a proxy. The letter also asks for the preparation of a weekly CPUE series for each fleet stratum between 2004 and 2016. The weekly CPUE series would serve as an additional tool for the analysis of the evolution of the stock.
Also in February, in meetings with fishery authorities, FIP partners requested the resumption of INIDEP’s fishery-independent surveys. This action reinforced the formal letter sent by CeDePesca to the National Undersecretary of Fisheries on the behalf of the partners of the Argentine red shrimp onshore FIP (the letter and its answer are to be found in that FIP’s progress Update table at the bottom of this page). The formal answer to the aforementioned letter was that the survey was scheduled to start in March with cooperation of the private sector.
On March 3rd, the Fisheries Federal Council met in the city of Buenos Aires and reviewed INIDEP’s independent survey plan. The plan was designed and agreed with the private sector, who provided a fishing vessel to be used as a scientific cruiser, as well as funds to carry out the survey. The selected fishing vessel was the Bogavante Segundo, owned by FIP partner Iberconsa. It should be noted that FIP partners Iberconsa and Newsan both offered their vessels to conduct the survey, and INIDEP researchers made their choice based on research criteria. The survey had a duration of 15 workdays and ended on March 23rd.
On March 22nd, the Argentine Chamber of Freezing Vessel Owners (CAPeCA) -to which several FIP partners are affiliated- sent a letter to the Fisheries Federal Council (CFP) asking for the summoning of the Commission for the Follow-up of the Argentine red shrimp fishery. The Fisheries Federal Council has instructed that this request is taken into account in the definition of the meeting agenda for 2017 (CFP Meeting Minute N°8-2017).
April – June 2017
On April 3rd, CeDePesca delivered its first progress report to FIP partners. The report was discussed and is now available in the detailed FIP Progress Table (see link at the end of this webpage).
On April 18th, the FIP’s Onboard Observers Program begun aboard the vessel Myrdoma F owned by FIP partner Congeladores Patagónicos.
On April 20th, the Argentine Chamber of Freezing Vessel Owners (CAPeCA) -to which several FIP partners are affiliated- renewed their request to the Fisheries Federal Council (CFP) for the summoning of the Commission for the Follow-up of the Argentine red shrimp fishery. The meeting is summoned for May.
On April 24th, some preliminary results of INIDEP’s independent survey that started in March with collaboration of the private sector were shared with stakeholders. The six specific objectives of the survey were: a) to confirm the presence of shrimp concentrations that are vulnerable and accessible to the commercial trawling shrimp nets in the Gulf of San Jorge and the northern coastal waters of Chubut; b) to analyze the spatial distributions of mature and egg-bearing females in order to estimate fecundity indices and size at first maturity; c) to obtain plankton samples in order to find shrimp eggs and larvae; d) to determine oceanographic conditions and the composition of the epi-benthic fauna associated to the main habitats related to the shrimp distribution in the survey area; e) to obtain samples for pathology studies to be conducted by INIDEP and SENASA; f) to sample and quantify bycatch. INIDEP considers that it is possible to infer that the first half of the 2017 fishing season will have similar catch levels to other fishing seasons in the recent past. It also advised to take measures to protect areas where small individuals are located, and measures to protect the areas where reproductive concentrations were distributed.
Also in April, FIP partners Shore NV, Pesquera Veraz and CeDePesca attended the Seafood Expo Global held at Brussels from April 24th to 26th. At the meeting, FIP progress was presented to interested parties.
On May 3rd, the Commission for the Follow-up of the Argentine red shrimp fishery held its first meeting of the year. The Undersecretariat of Fisheries presented a report on the fishery’s evolution from 2011 to date. INIDEP researchers proposed to wait until mid-May to conducted the survey that will assess whether the fishery should open, and also recommended to shorten the fishing season, in order to reduce bycatch of Argentine hake (see FIP Progress Table below).
In June, the CFP agreed to grant Chubut and Santa Cruz an extra quota of 2,300 mt to each, in compensation for the setting of fishing closure zones in the San Jorge Gulf during the year 2017.
On June 21st, CeDePesca attended a hearing at the CFP to present the FIP’s goals and progress and to encourage the implementation of a management plan for the fishery. The hearing was requested by CeDePesca in May. During the meeting, the results from the Onboard Observers Program for the 2016-2017 fishing season were presented and compared with those from the 2015-2016 fishing season and improvement recommendations were made.
Also in June, an informal meeting with INIDEP researchers responsible for the shrimp fishery was held. The improvements needed in research were discussed, including the request for a historical assessment of Argentine red shrimp’s stock in relation to biological reference points.
July – September 2017
Regarding improvements to the management system, in early August, the national Undersecretariat of Fisheries formally requested the Fisheries Federal Council (CFP) to conform a special workgroup to draft a management plan for the fishery. The CFP replied that an agenda will be discussed in subsequent meetings.
On August 31st, CeDePesca -on behalf of FIP partners- presented a letter to the CFP on August 31st to encourage improvements needed to achieve a certifiable status for the Argentine red shrimp fishery. Among the items discussed in the letter are: (i) the need to formalize the criteria for the opening and closure of the fishery, as well as fishery specific objectives, (ii) the need for regular data exchanges between national and provincial jurisdictions, (iii) the need to set up regular meetings of the Commission for the Follow-up of the Argentine red shrimp fishery; (iv) the need for setting biological reference points and the estimation of stock status indicators.
On September 5th, the Commission for the Follow-up of the Argentine red shrimp fishery met. At this meeting, FIP partners once again expressed the need to draft and adopt a management plan for the fishery. It should be noted that fishery stakeholders have already begun to express their interest in participating from the technical group that shall be set up to draft the plan.
In addition, on September 27th, FIP partners held a workshop with fishery stakeholders in the city of Buenos Aires. CeDePesca pointed to the need for a clear harvest strategy and harvest control rules for the Argentine shrimp fishery, asking for the introduction of clear and specific measures regarding the fishery opening and closure criteria, as well as a decision-making protocol if abundance falls below a critical threshold to be determined. It was also highlighted the need to define a solution for by-catch and discards for the offshore fleet.
Regarding improvements to research, on August 18th, CeDePesca sent a formal letter to the Undersecretary of Fisheries at the national level on behalf of FIP partners, to reiterate the request for the estimation of standardized weekly CPUE series for the ice-chilling fleet from 2004 to 2016, as a tool to analyze the evolution of the stock. On September 18th, the Undersecretary formally replied that the Undersecretariat will not be able to produce the required series with the data currently available to the entity, but suggests that the request is made to the Fisheries Research and Development Institute (INIDEP).
On September 29th, CeDePesca presented a letter to the Director of INIDEP requesting a series of catch per unit of weekly effort, by stratum of fleet, between 2004 and 2016. Also on this date, a second letter was sent requesting a meeting with INIDEP authorities and with the researchers assigned to the shrimp fishery. Unfortunately, to December 31st, INIDEP authorities have not replied.
October – December 2017
In October, the last trips of the 2017 fishing season were observed on board the vessels Arbumasa XVII (property of FIP partner Arbumasa) and Suemar (property of FIP partner Congeladores Patagónicos). The 2017 fishing season was closed on October 31st, in accordance to the provisions of the Fisheries Federal Council (CFP Meeting Minute No. 31/2017, point 2.1, page 7).
On November 1st, CeDePesca requested, through the administrative head of the Fisheries Federal Council, access to several communications presented by INIDEP. These communications helped to guide the decision-making process regarding the management measures in the shrimp fishery at the time, and would portrait the technical opinion of INIDEP in matters such as the possibility of opening fishing areas in national waters within the Juvenile Hake Closed Area. Recommendations issued by INIDEP for opening and closure of the fishing areas would include criteria such as the percentage of hake bycatch, in addition to abundance and shrimp size structure. This information would be useful for the design of a proposal for a harvest control rule based on reference points or proxies that mirrors as much as possible the methodology already used by the fishery managers. Unfortunately, on November 16th, CeDePesca was notified by the administrative head the request had been rejected. CeDePesca will continue to insist on the release of the recommendations by making a formal appeal to the Council.
Also in November, INIDEP started its second 2017 research campaign in the San Jorge Gulf and the coasts of Chubut. The work is being conducted on board the commercial vessel Bogavante Segundo, owned by FIP partner Iberconsa.
On November 30th, the CFP announced it will start work to define a Management Plan for the Argentine red shrimp fishery and that it would initiate an exchange with the representatives of different business chambers. For the purpose of these meetings, the CFP will travel to the provinces between December 2017 and March 2018.
On December 7th, the first of the aforementioned meetings took place in the city of Mar del Plata (province of Buenos Aires). The Fisheries Federal Council met with the Association of Coastal Fishing Boats, UDIPA, CAFREXPORT, CAIPA and the Cámara de Armadores de Buques Pesqueros de Altura. The following scales of this route during February and March 2018 are to be Port Madryn, Port Deseado and Port San Antonio.
January – March 2018
Regarding the design of a Management Plan for the fishery, on January 31st and February 1st, the Fisheries Federal Council (CFP) held meetings in Puerto Madryn and Rawson city, with representatives of several fishing sector chambers established in the province of Chubut (Cámara Argentina Patagónica de Industrias Pesqueras – CAPIP), Cámara Pesquera de Chubut – CAPECH, Cámara de la Flota Artesanal de Puerto Rawson, Cámara de Empresas Portuarias de Comodoro Rivadavia, Cámara de la Flota Amarilla de Puerto Rawson) and other independent fishing companies. On February 28th and March 1st, the CFP visited the province of Santa Cruz to hold meetings in Puerto Deseado city with representatives of the fishing industry chamber Cámara de Pesqueros Congeladores de la Argentina (Ca.Pe.CA) and independent fishing companies in that province.
Regarding improvements to fishery research, on February 21st, CeDePesca and FIP partners coordinator, Mr. Federico Angeleri, met with authorities of the Fisheries Research and Development Institute (INIDEP) and the research team dedicated to the Patagonian red shrimp fishery. During this meeting, data requests related to Catch per Unit of Effort and a historical analysis of the evolution of the stock against biological reference points were reiterated. Data regarding bycatch levels was also requested. Researchers committed to consider the matter and provide an answer shortly.
On the other hand, in January, INIDEP launched a 26-day campaign to assess the abundance of common hake (Merluccius hubbsi) in Patagonian waters, and to determine the summer distribution of Patagonian shrimp in the Gulf of San Jorge and external waters. This research campaign took place on board the research vessel Dr. Eduardo L. Holmberg, property of INIDEP. Later, on March 14th, the fishing vessel Bogavante Segundo, property of FIP partner Iberpesca, carried INIDEP researchers to conduct the third red shrimp survey campaign in the San Jorge Gulf and Chubut coast that is made with support from the private sector.
Also during this quarter, FIP partner Vepez announced its withdrawal from the project because of commercial reasons. The other FIP partners and CeDePesca thank Vepez for the support it gave to this FIP.
On the other hand, on March 13th, a meeting was held at the Seafood Expo North America, where the advances in the Argentine red shrimp FIP were presented at the Boston Convention Center.
On April 4th, the FFC meetings with different chambers and companies, continued within the framework of red shrimp Management Plan, during the visit to Río Negro province, which held meetings in Las Grutas, with representatives of independent companies and representatives of artisan sector.
On April 26th the preliminary advances in the Argentine red shrimp onshore FIP were presented at Seafood Expo Global in Brussels, with the participation of Chubut Fisheries Secretary.
On May 11th, a note was sent to INIDEP’s authorities, insisting on the request for catch and effort data. In this note the alternative of financing the work was offered with the contribution from FIP members. On June 28th, a second note was send. There was no official notification yet, although through informal contacts it has been reported that INIDEP authorities will soon offer an estimated development plan and budget for this task.
On May 17th, the Federal Fisheries Council issued the Resolution No. 7/2018, which establishes the management measures for the red shrimp fishery. The main points are: to maintain the commitment of Chubut and Santa Cruz not to allow the capture of red shrimp throughout San Jorge Gulf for the current year, and up to a period of 5 years, as well as length requirements of up to 40m and power up to 2,000 HP and the minimum size of the 45 mm malleus between opposite knots. It also establishes the obligatory nature of the use of the selectivity device when the hake / shrimp catch ratio exceeds the maximum value established by INIDEP. And it adds that in case of catches reduction, equivalent to 50% or more of the average of the last 5 years, a Contingency Plan will be applied.
On May 19th began the prospection of red shrimp in national waters, according to the provisions of Federal Fisheries Council (Act Nº 11/2018).
On June 21th, CeDePesca filed a statement with the authorities stating its position regarding the management measures resolved.
From July 14th to July 31th, the shrimp survey was carried out in the San Jorge Gulf, the Chubut coast and national waters aboard the BIP Víctor Angelescu.
On August 2nd, researchers from INIDEP Hake Program informed to FFC about the significant increase of bycatch of argentine red shrimp fishery: it was 32% higher than that registered in 2017. The hake by-catch obtained between March 3 and July 28 reached 16,950 tonnes and the hake / shrimp ratio varied from the week between July 16 to 22 (0.26) to the week between July 23 and 28 (0.11), when the fleet decreased its activity south of 45 ° S parallel and concentrated towards 44 ° S.
On August 16th, the Federal Fisheries Council analyzed the results of the 2018 season, and concluded that although the bycatch is greater than that registered in 2017; it would be explained by a greater presence of hake and abundance of juveniles of this species. Given this change of scenery they proposed to review the selective fishing gear, and it was decided to carry out a campaign to evaluate them.
On August 22th the partner CONARPESA withdrew from the FIP.
On September 5th, CeDePesca presented two notes to Federal Fisheries Council: the first to request a hearing with the FFC and to explain the FIP progress; and the second note, to request the meetings of Monitoring Commission of red shrimp fishery.
On September 12th the coastal shrimp fishery (Pleoticus muelleri) report in Chubut‘s waters. Risk analysis for the habitat – year 2016 – CSA method was published in the Maritime Front Magazine, Vol. N ° 25
On October 18th, the Federal Fisheries Council determined the closing of red shrimp season for October 30th as stated in the FFC Act No. 30/2018. The last boarding of the Private On-Board Observer Program was held on November 10, 2018.
On October 24th CeDePesca presented a new note requesting to INIDEP an abundance analysis of argentine red shrimp fishery. As of the date of this report, there was still no response.
On November 9th, the red shrimp survey in San Jorge Gulf and Chubut coast began on board the commercial fishing vessel Bogavante Segundo (Iberconsa).
On December 5th CeDePesca presented a note to the Ministry of Foreign Trade, to inform about the MSC certification of argentine red shrimp fishery.